The study "Influence of dietary restriction and low-intensity exercise on weight loss and insulin sensitivity in obese equids" was carried out by Nick Bamford and colleagues at the University of Melbourne’s Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Science, in collaboration with Spillers.
A total of 24 obese horses and ponies were randomly divided into two groups; 'restricted diet only' or 'restricted diet plus exercise'. All horses and ponies were fed the same diet of restricted hay (no grazing), a small amount of alfalfa chaff and soya bean meal, and a vitamin and mineral supplement.
The exercise programme, which was designed following feedback from horse owners to help ensure it could be implemented relatively easily in the real world, consisted of 15 minutes of brisk trotting (with a five minute walk before and after) five days per week for 12 weeks.
The 'restricted diet only' group showed an overall reduction in body weight and body condition score. They had increased levels of adiponectin – a hormone produced by fat cells, low levels of which are a risk factor for laminitis. They had decreased baseline insulin, high levels of which have been linked to an increased risk of laminitis, and decreased leptin, high levels of which are associated with obesity.
Although exercise did not increase weight loss, it did produce additional benefits that were not seen in the 'restricted diet only' group, the most important one being improved insulin sensitivity. More insulin sensitive horses and ponies need to produce less insulin in order to control their blood sugar. This is important because high levels of insulin in the blood and/or reduced insulin sensitivity are risk factors for laminitis. Horses and ponies in the exercise group also had decreased levels of ‘serum amyloid A’, a protein that is a marker for inflammation.
Clare Barfoot RNutr, the research and development manager at Spillers said: "Reducing calorie intake and feeding a diet low in starch and sugar should be the priority for overweight horses and ponies. However, the results of this study suggest that exercise may offer additional health benefits for obese horses and ponies and/or those with ‘EMS’ that cannot be achieved by cutting calories and weight loss alone."
Photo: Spillers/Steve Bardens
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